Management information systems

Home robotics is a contemporary idea that may bring about a revolution in the

technological world. Scientists and engineers across the globe may be engaged in tasks that may

change the way work is done at home by introducing robots that may make work easier for

mankind. As a result of the scientists’ efforts, new programs may be created that may in turn

produce information systems that signify the learning outcomes of this research paper. The

results may be products of incisive studies by researchers and software specialists. This study

presents a number of brilliant discoveries that may lead to an increase in home robotics and

systems. Grant & Anderson (2012) are quoted by Pantofaru et al (2012) of predicting of a future

automation of work by the Memex. The automation process may be able to enhance human

memory, digitise and organize records, books and communication. Grant & Anderson’s (2012)

advanced version of Memex may be realised in the modern day robot. Robots comprise of

physical agents that contain mechanical hardware. The robots consist of sensors of perception of

the surroundings and effectors that react to ‘stimuli’. Robots comprise of a software component

consisting of a set of programmed instructions (Niemueller & Widyadharma 2013). They can be

of various types, shapes, sizes and may handle a wide range of activities. A subset of the

software component entails the information system. The information system consists of three

parts; the transaction processing system which captures raw data, the management information

system that manages the output of the transaction processing system (TPS) as its input, and the

expert system that deals with the output of the management information system (MIS) as its

input (Niemueller, T, & Widyadharma, 2013).

A management information system is an organised collection of information and

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documentation software and hardware components that form a structure, that in an orderly

manner collects, stores, processes, analyses, reports and disseminates information and data

(UNESCO Bangkok 2009). This processed and analysed information that is mostly disseminated

from the system in form of reports becomes useful to high level managerial decision making in

any organisation. This research paper explores the usefulness of a management decision-making

system. The evaluation explores the methodologies used to create a management information

system that may be useful to corporate needs.

Findings and analyses

This study evaluates and analyses relevant literature on the development mechanisms

and programs of a management information system. The robots, with their ever increasing

information processing capability, have been evaluated alongside the pertinent system that

supports them (Schweitzer 2003). Robots will continue taking more tasks in packaging,

manufacturing, maintenance, agriculture and construction (Frey & Osborne 2013)

1. A management information system’s main uses

a. Functional business systems

A business constitutes of five main functional business areas that are a)marketing and its

sub-systems of sales automation, customer relationship management and interactive marketing,

b) human resource management and its sub-structures of compensation analysis, employee

skills inventory and personal requirements forecasting, c) finance which comprises of the sub-
units of cash, credit and investment management, capital budgeting and financial forecasting, d)

accounting and related constituents of order processing, inventory control, accounts receivable

and payable, general ledger and payroll, and e) production or operations which constitutes of

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process control, manufacturing resource planning and execution systems. Most information

management systems utilise one particular functional business area. NoSQL, which is a non-
relational database handling terabytes of data, helps the robot to scan and update the data

regularly hence reducing the processing time of information (Vijaykumar & Saravanakumar

2011). The application of the NoSQL concept in a distributed environment is going to usher in

a new era of humanoids: robotic type of machine mimicking human behavior (Vijaykumar &

Saravanakumar 2011).

i. Accounting management information systems

Accounting deals with the collection, recording and evaluation of data that may be of

financial significance to a given organisation. An accounting information system receives

particular input data from the external environment, processes the information and gives out

the desired accounting output for further action. The system contains three subsets which are

financial, cost and management accounting frameworks. The management information systems

can be critical to any firm’s decision making. They support the management of organisations in

the provision of reports for managers. The managers subject the reports to tactical and strategic

decision-making affecting the profitability of the organisation (Ramsin, 2012).

ii. Marketing management information system

This structure provides automated mechanisms for product management, interactive

marketing, advertising, promotion, customer relationship management, force automation,

sales management and market research and forecasting. Although primary information for

the marketer may not be available, a general overview is necessary for evaluating and making

strategic decisions in the operation of the company and its marketing activities (Brunda, 2011).

iii. Human resource management information system

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The human resource management system provides mechanisms for managing employee

compensation analysis, skills inventory and personal requirements forecasting. Human resource

systems may either be oriented towards high performance through investment in employees

or a more administrative approach of managing employees. David et al (2009) quote Hossain,

Patrick & Rashid (2012) and argue that high-involvement in human resource systems may help

in empowering employees through increased information flows and devolution of decision-
making power, leading to greater productivity of the company.

iv. Financial management information systems

A financial management structure can be an analytical framework designed to produce

statistical series which may be both consistent and compatible to the organisation’s needs by

encompassing the financial transactions of cash, credit and investment management, capital

budgeting and financial forecasting (Statistics Canada 2009). According to the National Food

Service Management Institute of the University of Mississippi 2009), a financial management

information system provides a money management tool that aids in decision-making and

improves program quality and efficiency.

v. Production or operations management system

A production management system entails a framework that is designed to improve

production efficiency and quality, enhances communications and reduces waste through process

control, manufacturing resource planning and execution control (Prosys 2011). The production

management information system helps in situations where one shift may contain lower

productivity than the other. It processes data that may help in the investigation of the source of

a problem and make informed decisions to improve results (Xerox 2014). Factory robots will

need much improved perception systems in the future to monitor the tasks of those around them

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and their own tasks, able to estimate the emotional and physical state of humans and in real time

be able to oversee product components and subassemblies in order to avoid money and time

wastage (A Roadmap for US Robotics 2009).

b. Cross-functional enterprise systems

A cross-functional enterprise structure is an organised intersection of several functional

components that may be used to support information-processing and the decision-making needs

of several departments in an organisation (Česalová, 2010). The functional systems within

the cross-functional structure include financial, accounting and human resource management,

marketing information and production or operations management as discussed earlier.

c. Customer relationship management systems

A customer relationship framework entails a business strategy and a combination of software

tools and technologies, aimed at identifying new opportunities, reducing costs, increasing

revenue, channels for expansion, and improving customer value, profitability, satisfaction, and

retention ( Grant & Anderson 2012). Many organisations adopt customer-centric strategies,

tools, programs, and technology for efficient and effective customer relationship management

(Parvatiyar & Sheth 2011). According to Fabac and Mance (2011), a good customer relationship

system stores data that describes individual customers’ activities, interests and opinions and

the manner in which they make decisions and influence the opinion of others. An analytical

customer relationship management system, with complete records of certain customer’s

behavior, may be of great significance in a decision making process (Heczková, & Stoklasa,

2011). In the future, robot cooperation can be achieved by learning-based and/or skill based

automation and their solutions based on multi-processors executing multi-threaded programs

running in a clouding computing distributed environment (Gaithersburg 2011).

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d. Enterprise resource planning systems

An enterprise resource planning structure may be a subset of cross-functional systems that

may help in eliminating an organisation’s internal and departmental boundaries by merging a

number of business processes into integrated software that makes it possible to create a seamless

information system. The management information system has two broad sub-categories that

comprise of the functional business systems like the accounting, financial, and operations,

marketing, and human resource management frameworks. Other management formats include

the cross-functional enterprise, customer relationship, supply chain management, enterprise

resource planning systems and the e-commerce platform. All of these management information

systems play a role in the decision-making of an organisation (Pearson Education, 2010). These

management information systems can be embedded into sensors and actuators in robotics

systems or online expert systems known as agents to enable them in processing information and

interacting with the physical environment.

This paper outlines four structures of software development which include the rational

unified, rapid application development, extreme and scrum methodologies. The first two are

relatively old while the later belongs to the modern agile software methodology.


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It is advantageous to deploy a management information system as a single functional

system. It is economical to combine all the departments of an organisation and create a

cross-functional system for the whole company. Online agents and robots can be integrated

with embedded management information systems to speed up their information processing

capabilities. It is also beneficial to use the agile methodologies (XP and Scrum) in software

development as opposed to the traditional ones (NFSMI, 2011). Researchers and organisations

must work together to realise increased funding for research in the areas discussed in this paper.

Governments must create special structures and monitoring systems to ensure that the concept of

home robotics continues to achieve progress.


Brunda, P .(2011) Marketing Information System,38. Czech Republic, Silesian University in

The author of this article is Carol, a professional sales executive working for a company known as Mambo Microsystems ltd well known for cloud hosting company in Kenya

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